Saturday, July 11, 2020

Nursing School Scholarship Essay Sample - Get a Free Writing Sample

Nursing School Scholarship Essay Sample - Get a Free Writing SampleIf you're interested in pursuing a career in nursing, then you've probably already taken some sort of nursing school scholarship essay sample. It's a common practice that is used to see if your resume is acceptable and if you have the ability to present yourself in the best possible way.However, are these samples available for free writing sample? While it can be done by using a standard email application, some agencies offer great prizes if you will complete these samples for them. Of course, there are also many websites that are offering these writing samples for free.Most of these websites provide top incentive for those who take the time to submit the essay samples. This means that all they require is that you submit the sample, and you can have free writing samples.This is an excellent way to see if you can get a good deal on your essay samples because you won't have to pay any money or charge any membership fees . Most of these places will allow you to write the sample right on their website or even in your email so that you don't have to type anything up.Another site that allows you to submit your writing samples for free is the site of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. You can find out more about them online. It would be a good idea to check them out to see if you can get free samples through them.You should find out if the sites that you are going to use are either good and reputable or not. This way, you can avoid any scam sites that you will have to lose money or get scammed.These sites will actually let you choose if you want to submit for free essay samples or not. The sites that only let you choose if you will pay for the writing samples are the scam sites.Now that you know the benefits of getting free writing samples, you should probably do it. You won't have to worry about money, so you won't have to feel bad about charging someone money to get something y ou want or need.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Civilization and Capitalism Essay - 1650 Words

Civilization and Capitalism (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Instructor:Course:Date: Civilization and capitalismJurgis Rudkus in The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, a naive young immigrant from Lithuania to Chicago is a character used by Sinclair to build up on the theme of the evils of capitalism in the novel. Throughout the novel, Jurgis suffers under the hands of capitalist Americans until almost at the end of the novel, he does not only see the evils of capitalism, but also embraces socialism. Jurgis constant challenge with capitalism is best brought out through the treatment he undergoes under capitalist employers who have helped him kill his American Dream due to his naivety. Towards the end of the novel, Sinclair brings about the idea of socialism as an alternative to capitalism through Jurgis. Reinforcing the claim by Sigmund Freud in Civilization and its Discontents that: if private property were abolished, all wealth held in common, and everyone allowed to share in the enjoyment of it, ill-will and hostility would disa ppear among men (Freud 60).The book starts with Jurgis at his veselijaa wedding feast in a hall at Packingtown near Chicago stockyards. The place is called so as this is the center of the meat-packing industry. The wedding is carried on according to the Lithuanian traditions. Oblivious of the fact that they are in Chicago, he follows Lithuanian traditions which have it that hungry people are let in the wedding to eat to their fill which Jurgis agrees with. Male guests mark the ceremony by forming a circle an each dances with the bride giving her some money to cater for the expenses of the wedding. This is the first instance that Jurgis displays his naivety and oblivion of the dishonest people in Chicago. In the center stands the bride, and, one by one, the men step into the enclosure and dance with her. Each dances for several minutes... he drops a sum of moneya dollar, or perhaps five dollars, according to his power, and his estimate of the value of the privilege. The guests are e xpected to pay for his entertainment (Sinclair 15).Jurgis guests however do not have money and they start leaving the party after eating to fill and without giving money. His wife Ona gets scared they might not get money to pay but Jurgis assures her he would work hard to pay the money. Jurgis, together with other members had moved to the United States as immigrants in pursuit of the American dream of better paying jobs. Arriving at Chicago, things are quite different as they are directed to a miserable and overcrowded boarding house owned by a poverty-stricken woman where they would then spend almost their entire life. At first, finding a job is very hard for Jurgis even though he possesses qualities of a very abled man. He is very confident of his ability to work. Eventually he finds a job of cleaning the innards of slaughtered animals at the slaughterhouse.It is at this point that Sinclair introduces us through Jurgis, his theme of capitalism and the challenges that Jurgis underg oes in his jobs. As Freud asserts;Normally, there is nothing of which we are more certain than the feeling of our self, of our own ego. This ego appears to us something autonomous (Freud 13).Jurgis is very ambitious at the beginning when he goes to Chicago. He promises Ona that he is going to work hard when the guests leave without paying. In addition, he also advices Teta Elzbieta and the children not to work because the former is old and the children need to go to school. He feels that his ambitions are not limited by outside forces and that hard work will pay. Indeed, he works hard when he gets a job to be able to reach his goal. Jurgis is very oblivious of the fact that his life and thus his ambitions are controlled by the capitalist employers who takes advantage of their naivety to enrich themselves. This single aspect of living as an immigrant in Chicago renders his life in the United States a challenge. He gets little pay even though he works very hard in the butcheries and u nder very unhealthy conditions. The control of the life of immigrants by the businessmen can be attributed to the notion of private property which drives them to want to accumulate more and more. Freud talks of private property as a driving force towards such aggression to want to own more and more. He says thatIn abolishing private property we deprive the human love of aggression of one of its instruments (Freud 60).Freud here implies that it is this kind of aggression that makes America unsuitable for the immigrants as they often do not have enough private property to harbor such power. Freud continues on to explain the connection between the poor working conditions of the health workers for the sake of profiting the employer when he asserts thatwe have in no way altered the differences in power and influence which are misused by aggressiveness, nor have we altered anything in its nature. Aggressiveness was not created by property (Freud 60). Meaning that; the natural tendency of aggression is aggravated by possession of property. As long as Jurgis and other immigrants are working to enrich the business men more, their status as immigrants deteriorates. This character is best illustrated by the saloonkeeper where he cons Jurgis in beer sales.when the time came he always came to you scratching his head and saying that he had guessed too low, but that he had done his bestyour guests had gotten so very drunk. By him you were sure to be cheated unmercifully, and that even though you thought yourself the dearest of the hundreds of friends he had. (Sinclair 18). As times goes, Jurgis life become increasingly difficult and he begins to realize how wrong he was about the American Dream. At some point he is unable to feed the entire family especially when Jonas disappears. This sees another sacrifice that Jurgis makes towards capitalism. To make the matters worse, he at some point while working sprains his ankle and is forced to stay without a job for three months. This is the point where capitalism demands most from him. His dreams are now shattered. He is desperate as he cannot make a living. Against his own principles, he has to let the children work so as to feed the family.So it was finally decided that two more of the children would have to leave school... there was no reason why their family should starve when tens of thousands of children no older were earning their own livings (Sinclair 132). Selling newspapers was also filled with difficulties as there were conmen as well as people who had demarcated territories where they only would sell newspapers. Capitalism here is manifested in a different aspect; the contrast between the minority who enjoyed the advantages of civilization and a majority who were robbed of those advantages (Freud 62). As fate has it, Jurgis as an immigrant is in the majority group. He is severely disadvantaged by civilization. Jurgis naivety also results into his irrational behavior especially when he beats up t he children for being robbed. His ideals do not let him understand the wicked nature of the streets. Chapters 14 through 20 are marked by Jurgis aggressive character. At first, he attacks Conor for raping Ona. He is then arrested and a farce judgment is made where he is sentenced to 30days in jail. His pleas to the judge that he is the family provider bears no fruits and while in jail, learns of the slew misfortunes that hits his family as a result. Connor has practically made it hard for the family to get jobs. Eventually, they are thrown out of the house they had bought since they were not ab...

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Role of Attachment in Infancy Is Vital in Subsequent...

â€Å"Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space† McLeod (2009), as a core component of social and emotional development, the necessity and role of caregivers is a heavily researched area. Theories differ on the impairment that a crippled or complete lack of attachment causes to an infant in terms of social, emotional or intellectual development. These theories range from Harlow’s unethical work with infant rhesus monkeys to Chisholm’s study of Romanian orphans, the work remains relevant however in order to be aware of how to support or setback the deleterious affects that studies appear to be congruent on occur in infants of abuse or that have been abandoned. The paper Total†¦show more content†¦Within an ideal attachment relationship as suggested by Mary Ainsworth (1963, 1967) in the strange situation procedure, the caregiver acts as a secure base where to the infant can return during exploration of the environment if the infant feels insecure or fearful. John Bowlby (1969, 1988) proposed the maternal deprivation hypothesis based on the belief that infants are biologically predisposed to form attachments to a caregiver, founded upon the caregivers ability to respond appropriately to the infants needs. The maternal deprivation hypothesis proposes long-term damage due to absence of attachment with a caregiver during the critical or sensitive period, within the first two to three years of life. Caregivers responses to emotional cues through such things as affect attunement, in which the care-giver is sensitive and attuned to the infants emotions, as well as the care-givers own representation of their childhood experiences, as indic ated by such thing such as AAI are known to predict infant attachment to a caregiver. The AAI or ‘Adult Attachment Interview’ (George et al., 1996) is a semi-structured questionnaire focusing on the participant’s experience of their childhood relativeShow MoreRelatedDevelopmental Psychology : Laser Student Number : Ruby Kiddi1624 Words   |  7 PagesSeptember 2014 Attachment Theory 1. Define attachment, including reference to key theorists/researchers in this field and the contributions they have made. Attachment style theory describes the type of attachment an infant has with its mother or other main care giver which is generally first observed in a child around 5 to 7 months of age and may continue to shape them and their relationships for the rest of their lives (Smith, Cowie Blades, 2011; Downey Feldman, 1996). Attachment is an affectionateRead MoreJohn Bowlby s Theory Of Attachment1423 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Bowlby’s theory of attachment asserts that an infant forms an attachment to the primary caregiver to ensure survival. Developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth furthered this idea by devising attachment styles in infants. Ainsworth believed that the quality of care given by the mother or primary caregiver results in the infant developing a secure or insecure attachment. Ainsworth identified three attachment styles, namely; secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent attachments. As the word infers,Read MoreAnalysis Of Wuthering Heights And The Poisonwood Bible146 8 Words   |  6 Pagestoday’s society. The consequences of abuse and neglect affect a wide range of categories from health and physical development; to intellectual and cognitive development; to emotional and psychological development; and social and behavioral development. In many instances, more than one type of abuse or neglect is involved, resulting in developmental delays in multiple categories. One development area always affected is behavior, as the states of all other parts factor into how a person reacts to surroundingRead MoreAttachment Theory and the Kibbutz Society5271 Words   |  21 PagesIntroduction 2 1.1- Thesis statement 3 1.2- Definition of terms 4 PART 2 5 2- Research description 5 Literature review 5 2.1- Attachment Theory 5 2.2- Growing in Kibbutz 8 2.3- Intervention programs 9 2.4- Physical issues 9 2.5- Mothers sensitivity to infant cues 10 2.6- Externalizing and its impact on children 10 Research design 11 Method 11 Findings 11 Emotional unavailability 11 Complication in mother-infant relationship 12 Limitations 12 PART 3 13 3- Historical background 13 PARTRead More Separation Anxiety and Attachment in Infants and Toddlers Essay2897 Words   |  12 Pagesmight make them wonder if they are causing their child undue stress. Separation anxiety has been studied for many years beginning with documentation by David Levy (Karen, 1998) in 1937 who was interested in Ââ€Å"Â’maternal overprotectionÂ’ – the emotional impact of mothers who are anxious, overly cautious, and generally infantilizing of their young† (Karen, 1998, 16). His study involved several young children who had not had maternal care as infants and seemed unable to connect emotionally with theirRead MoreBonding And Attachment Between Mothers And Their Children5089 Words   |  21 PagesIntroduction Bonding or attachment between mothers and their children has been a topic of research for many decades. John Bowlby, a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst began his work with attachment began in the early 1950 s and continued through 1990. His theories, along with Mary Ainsworth s research, an American-Canadian developmental psychologist, was the basis for Attachment Theory. Ainsworth and Bowlby s collaboration on attachment eventually led to the current classificationRead MoreAn Evalution of the Attachment Theory Essay13038 Words   |  53 PagesTHE ATTACHMENT THEORY AN EVALUTION OF THE ATTACHMENT THEORY WHEN WORKING WITH CHILDREN IN CARE Gail Walters Dissertation Social Work BA (HONS) Manchester Metropolitan University Tutor: Pauline Black CONTENTS Pages Abstract Read MoreEriksons Psychosocial Development Theory10839 Words   |  44 Pageserik eriksons psychosocial crisis life cycle model - the eight stages of human development Eriksons model of psychosocial development is a very significant, highly regarded and meaningful concept. Life is a serious of lessons and challenges which help us to grow. Eriksons wonderful theory helps to tell us why. The theory is helpful for child development, and adults too. For the lite version, heres a quick diagram and summary. Extra details follow the initial overview. For more informationRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14194 Words   |  57 PagesAdolescent development: The development of children ages 12 through 19 years old is expected to include predictable physical and mental milestones. Introduction Derived from the Latin verb adolescere (to grow into maturity), adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent is a distinct and dynamic phase of development in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical, mental, emotional and socialRead MoreDefinition of Adolescent Development14200 Words   |  57 PagesAdolescent development: The development of children ages 12 through 19 years old is expected to include predictable physical and mental milestones. Introduction Derived from the Latin verb adolescere (to grow into maturity), adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent is a distinct and dynamic phase of development in the life of an individual. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by spurts of physical, mental, emotional and

Monday, May 18, 2020

Analysis Of The Movie The Wire - 916 Words

Last time SPQ spoke with actor and Pittsburgh native Carl Clemons, he was part of HBO’s awarding winning series â€Å"The Wire.† Since the show’s conclusion, Carl has kept himself busy with the continued development of his craft through multiple acting roles. â€Å"I have learned a lot these past few years through my own trails tribulations working in the film business,† he shared. One such test of patience, strength and endurance happened during the filming of â€Å"South Paw† here in Pittsburgh, produced by another Pittsburgh native Antione Fuqua. Carl said that he went to try out for a feature role, but was not chosen. Not to take rejection and the chance to work with the award-winning director, he humbled himself and accepted a role as a movie extra. Also starring in the movie was his friend Tyrese Gibson. One day Tyrese saw him and asked Carl, what was he doing playing an extra? After Carl told him the story, Tyrese went Fuqua and let him kno w about Carl’s talents. Carl was then given the role as Tyrese’s character’s friend in the film. In the final cut, not only was Tyrese’s character cut from the film, but so was Carl’s. That’s the way it goes in the film business, you never know what or who is going to be left on the editing floor. But out of this rocky experience Carl has grown as an actor and understands the uncertainty of working as an actor. Another similar experience happened in the film â€Å"Out of the Furnace,† with Christian Bale (filmed in Pittsburgh andShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie The Wire 922 Words   |  4 Pages The first time SPQ interviewed actor and Pittsburgh native Carl Clemons, he was part of HBO’s awarding winning series â€Å"The Wire.† Since the show’s conclusion, he has kept himself working as an actor in a variety of acting roles. â€Å"These past few years I have experienced personal trails tribulations. W orking in the film business is not as easy as it seems.† Carl shared. There is saying in the film business that many great scenes are left on the cutting floor; it’s not an idle phrase, butRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie No Wire Hangers 891 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"No wire hangers!† What would be a normal thing to find in an average persons home is not accepted in Joan Crawford’s home. This posses the question why in the movie Mommie Dearest does Mrs. Crawford have a dilemma with wire hangers in her closet? Why does she have so many mental complications in general? Although to the public, Joan seems like a striving successful actress she obviously has some underlying issues. She has developed her personality disorders her whole life, but how she got them isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Man On Wire 1394 Words   |  6 PagesThe movie, Man on Wire is a documentary about wire-walker, Philippe Petit, who proves his impossible, yet inspiring dream above the clouds between the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers was indeed possible. During this documentary, Petit magically walked and danced across a wire, leaving the audience filled with suspense and extremely sweaty palms. This project, completed by James Marsh, was truly a job well done, because of the way he has Petit narrate the documentary and how he recounts the eventsRead MoreTheme Of Personality Disorder In The Movie Mommie Dearest1177 Words   |  5 Pagesbe defined as patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and may distress the affected individual. A great deal of these disorders go unnoticed, and/or undiagnosed. One way to learn how to identify these disorders is through movie analysis. For example, the film â€Å"Mommie Dearest†, directed by Frank Perry, is a story about Joan Crawford and her struggles with personality disorders. Joan Crawford demonstrates the personality disorders of Bipolar Disorder, Histrionic Disorder, NarcissisticRead MoreMommie Dearest : Movie Analysis1325 Words   |  6 Pagespersonà ¢â‚¬â„¢s ability to cope with everyday life. Personality disorders are patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and may distress the affected individual (Rathus, 2010). One way to learn how to identify these disorders is through movie analysis. Movies can help the understanding of psychological and personality disorders because people can get a better understanding from a â€Å"show me, not tell me† aspect. It is hard for a student to understand what these disorders actually are unless,Read MoreFaradays Law1667 Words   |  7 Pagesthe voltage across it changes the way it does when the north or south pole of rod shaped magnet is moved into and then back out of the center of a coil of wire at various speeds. No calculations are required in this activity, just thinking! Figure 1: The north pole of a cylindrical magnet is: (a) moving into the center of a coil of wire; (b) reversing direction; and then (c) moving out of the coil. The coil’s voltage vs. time is recorded with a computer interfaced voltage probe. TheoreticalRead MoreMomie Dearest : Psychological Disorders In The Movie Mommie Dearest1168 Words   |  5 Pagesand motion pictures to detect and analyze disorders. For example, in the movie â€Å"Mommie Dearest†, it is not hard to identify the psychological and personality disorders Joan Crawford possesses, despite not being trained psychologists. After viewing the movie and analyzing the character, it is clear to see the Joan Crawford possesses the disorders of Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissism, and Bipolar disorders. Throughout the movie Mommie Dearest, it is clear that the most prominent personality disorderRead MoreEssay on Production Report1087 Words   |  5 PagesThriller Movie, a Children’s Television Programme, A magazine or a Radio Advert. After looking at them carefully, I decided to produce an opening sequence of a Thriller Movie. The sequence had to be at least two minutes long. For this I had to Analysis three existing Media Texts, make a storyboard for my movie, a script for the story, planning a schedule, making the actual production, etc. when I was thinking of the filming, I had to think of a thriller movie that wouldRead MoreThe Film War Horse By Michael Morpurgo1575 Words   |  7 Pagesits viewers would not see War Horse as a true representative of what the war was really like. It is how the use of camera movement in War Horse connected to almost all movie goers, even though it goes against a ‘conventional Hollywood movie script’ (Madigan 2012, 48) that will be the starting point of the films camerawork analysis. Unlike Pulp Fiction there is a linear narrative present meaning spectators need to be able to clearly follow and understand the actions and events portrayed. An establishingRead MoreMovie Analysis: M vs. Bicycle Thieves Essay1399 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of M and Bicycle Thieves One thing that both movies, M and Bicycle Thieves, share collectively is the open ending; both movies make audiences interpret their own perception or ending of the movies. Also, both movies contain a sense of tragedy in the final scenes; in the movie M, I felt somewhat sympathetic toward the mentally ill killer even though I knew he was the serial killer and might be pretending to get away. The feeling of sympathy toward the serial killer in the presence of his

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Response Paper to Michelle Alexanders The New Jim Crow...

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness was written by Michelle Alexander to expose the truth of racial injustice in the system of mass incarceration through the comparison of the racial control during the Jim Crow Era. She reveals how race plays an important role in the American Justice System. Alexander argues about the racial bias, particularly towards African-Americans, immanent in the war on drugs as a result of their lack of political power and how the Supreme Court tolerates this injustice. Statistics show that African Americans commit only fifteen percent of drug offenses, yet they comprise up to 90% of incarcerations for drug offenses in communities throughout the country. Besides that, although the†¦show more content†¦Although some victims of this type of abuse took legal action and attested that the war on drugs is racially unjust, their claims were rejected and disregarded by the court. â€Å"The Supreme Court has made it virtually im possible to challenge racial bias in the criminal justice system under the Fourteenth Amendment, and it has barred litigation of such claims under federal civil rights laws as well.† (Alexander 106) For instance in the McCleskey vs. Kemp case, the real matter in question was whether the court would permit racial discrimination in the criminal justice system. The sentence given to McCleskey was the Court’s reply, â€Å"racial bias would be tolerated––virtually to any degree––as long as no one admitted it.† (Alexander 107) So in reality, the Supreme Court has sanctioned racial bias in the criminal justice system and policing instead of opting for rules prohibiting it. The facts speak for themselves, people of color are the enemies and targets in the war on drugs. They also tell us that fighting back is useless due to the racial bias that is inherent in the criminal justice system. This might come as a surprise to the majority that belie ve discrimination is no longer in existence, considering that it is a black man living in the White House. Ever since Barack Obama pledged to serve as the forty-fourth presidentShow MoreRelatedSummary Of The New Jim Crow1742 Words   |  7 PagesWorks Cited Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press, 2010. 261 Pages â€Å"The New Jim Crow† Summary â€Å"The New Jim Crow† was written by Michelle Alexander based off of her experience working for the ACLU of Oakland in which she saw racial bias in the justice system that constituted people of color second-class citizens (Alexander 3); which is why the comparison had been made to the Jim Crow laws that existed in the nineteenth centuryRead MoreThe New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration of the Racial Undercaste3337 Words   |  14 Pagesform of mass incarceration, and what kinds of effects mass incarceration has on a community. In this paper, I will briefly examine a range of issues surrounding the mass incarceration of black and Latino males, the development of a racial undercaste because of rising incarceration rates, women and children’s involvement and roles they attain in the era of mass incarceration, and the economic importance that the prison system has due to its development. Michelle Alexander, in her book, The New Jim Crow:

The Final Girl free essay sample

One of the more important, if not groundbreaking, accounts/recuperations of the horror film from a feminist perspective is Carol Clovers Men, Women, and Chainsaw. One of the books major points concerns the structural positioning of what she calls the Final Girl in relation to spectatorship. While most theorists label the horror film as a male-driven/male-centered genre, Clover points out that in most horror films, especially the slasher film, the audience, male and female, is structurally forced to identify with the resourceful young female (the Final Girl) who survives the serial attacker and usually ends the threat (until the sequel anyway). So while the narratively dominant killers subjective point of view may be male within the narrative, the male viewer is still rooting for the Final Girl to overcome the killer. We can see this operating archetypically in Halloween (Jamie Lee Curtis, 1978), Friday the 13th (Betsy Palmer, 1980), Eyes of a Stranger (Jennifer Jason Leigh, 1981), and A Nightmare on Elm Street (Heather Langenkamp, 1984). We will write a custom essay sample on The Final Girl or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One of the books central strengths is the direct simplicity of its central premise: taking the classic Laura Mulvey male-centered identification process of sadistic-voyeur and flipping it around to a masochistic-voyeur (by having the identification process shift to the usually female victim/Final Girl). Vis-a-vis the Mulvian argument against male-driven cinematic pleasure, Clover does for the horror film what Gaylyn Studlar did for the Sternberg-Dietrich films: swapping the Post-Oedipal, male voyeuristic-sadistic impulse for a more feminine, Pre-Oedipal masochistic impulse. In psychoanalytical terms, sadism is post-Oedipal, meaning that it takes shape when identification shifts from the mother to the father. Masochism, deriving pleasure from ones own pain or submission, is pre-Oedipal and takes place when the mother is all powerful and is the source of the childs identification (from the womb to the breast). In the pre-Oedipal stage the child takes pleasure in this pure submission to the mother. (Fellini once said a similar thing about why his films are populated with large, motherly women and motherly prostitutes: because of middle aged men not wanting to let go of that pleasure of unadorned submission. In relating this to the Sternberg/Dietrich films, the implication is that one can also identify with the submissive male or female character one finds in each of the films. When turning this over to the horror film, as in the traditional slasher film, the spectator assumes a submissive position whenever they identify with the female victim, and more importantly, the female heroine.

Financial Accounting Business Organizations

Question: Discuss about the Financial Accounting for Business Organizations. Answer: Introduction This study is based on the subject of financial accounting. During this study, the focus is made on the current approach that the business organizations follow to accounting for the liabilities. In the beginning, the study discusses and analyzes the shortfalls in the current definition of the liabilities in the modern business context. At the same time, the discussion focuses on the influence of current accounting approach to the liabilities on the profit overstatement. After that, the study analyses whether the definition or the current accounting approach for the liabilities needs to be changed or not. Proper justifications are provided for each argument in the study. Discussing about the shortfall of the current definition for liabilities As per the current approach for liabilities accounting, liability refers to the economic benefits in terms of future sacrifice that an organization is liable to pay to other party or other organizations against the past transactions (Scott 2016). The resultant liability transactions or events should be settled between the parties that involves transfer of assets, use of assets, provision of business services or transfer of funds. Liability is considered as an obligation that is legally binding that incorporates accounts payable, interest payable, accrued liabilities and other payables (Rosen 2016). Besides, accounting of liabilities requires a company to recognize the amount of liability as a credit balance in the account of liability. However, accounting of liability requires to classify the liabilities as per the nature and type of obligation that is classification as per short- term and long- term and contingent liability (Arnold, Harris and Liu 2016). In several cases, liability also includes environmental liability, which refers to an obligation resulting in future payments because of the past transactions or if the liability resulted from the harm caused by environmental damage. Liabilities also include contractual obligations, deferred revenues, deposits for customers and other outstanding payments. It can be said that the accounting of liabilities should be done appropriately by considering the relevant definition stated in the principles and standards of accounting. Many organizations fail to recognize the liabilities appropriately due to several shortfalls in the liabilities definition when it is applicable to the potentially negative environmental situation (Penner, Kreuze and Langsam 2016). Current definition of liability states that liabilities occur as present obligation due to past events, which does not provide clear understanding to many organizational management and therefore fails to recognize as and when it occurs. For instance, liability occurred with respect to interest payable against the amount of term loans borrowed from bank is required to be recognized as liability since the end of the first year. However, due to lack of clear understanding of definition of liability, organizations fail to recognize the liability on interest payable in the first year (Kumar a nd Misra 2016). Another shortfall in the current definition of liability consists of clear understanding on classification of liabilities as per the nature and terms of occurrence. Accounting of liabilities depends on the nature of liabilities that involves short- term, long- term and contingent liability. There are certain liabilities arise as contingent liabilities that are disclosed under notes to the accounts in the financial report and not in the income statement or balance sheet (Song 2016). Considering the current definition, many organizations fail to classify liabilities appropriately that results in incorrect recognition in the financial statements. Shortfall in the current definition of liability involves lack of providing importance and impact on the cash flow of the organization results in inappropriate accounting in the financial statements (Irwin 2016). Such shortfall in the definition of liability provides impact on the organizational financial statements when the same is applicable to the environmental situations that are potentially negative. Overstatement of profit due to shortfall in definition of liabilities Liabilities are considered to be one of the essential components of financial information which represents the financial position of the organization in terms of amount of obligation that company owes to other parties (Parmar 2016). Accordingly, it is important for the organizations to recognize and represent the transactions of liabilities to provide true and fair financial position during the financial year. Inappropriate of accounting for liabilities result in misstatements in financial statements that represents incorrect profitability and incorrect financial position of the business organization (Jrgensen 2016). In case the transaction of liability is not recognized by the organization for the accounting year in which the liability actually occurred, then the financial statements would not reflect the correct financial information (Mudel 2016). For example, if the amount of liability occurred during the current financial year, it is required to be recognized in the current years financial statements as per the requirement of liabilitys definition. However, if the organization fails to record the amount of liability as and when it occurs i.e. in the current year, the financial statement would be reflecting inappropriate result while the profits would reflect overstated balance (Ratnatunga 2016). Further, inappropriate recognition of liability that may occur due to probable mistakes in identifying the transactions as liability would result in overstatement of profits. Provisions on assets or bad debts include liability that should be recognized as current liability in the statement of financia l position. Therefore, if the organization commits mistake in measuring correct amount of provision, then the operating activities would be recognized at higher cost resulting in overstated profits during the financial year. Other liabilities involve identification of contingent liability inappropriate accounting of which results in overstatement in organizational profitability. As per the definition of liability, contingent liability refers to the potential obligation that occurs due to tentative future event, amount of which is estimated on reasonable basis and disclosed in the financial statements under the notes to the accounts (Weidner 2016). Accordingly, if the organization fails to recognize the contingent liability correctly as well as fails to determine correct amount, then the cost of respective event would reflect lower balance and therefore, amount of profit might reflect overstated balance (Bhasin 2016). In addition, there are certain transactions occur in the business activities that represent both the feature of cost and liabilities. Hence, the organization is required to classify correctly the cost and liability component because recognition of cost affects the income statement while liability component affects the statement of financial position. Accordingly, if the cost component is included in the liability component of the transaction, the same would be recognized in the balance sheet instead of income statement and consequently, the same would reflect overstated profits. Moreover, overstatement of profitability in the financial statement of the organization results due to lack of creating correct provisions on debtors i.e. provision for bad and doubtful debtors (Moehrle et al. 2016). Considering the sales transaction of the organization, it includes credit sales for which provision for doubtful payments and bad debts is required to be estimated and recognized as liability. If the organization fails to estimate such provision, amount of sales would be recognized at higher value reflecting overstated profit. Importance in accounting if it fails to capture the information Identification of liability is important for appropriate accounting, information of which reflects true and fair view of the companys financial performance as well as financial performance. As the amount of liability represents the companys total obligation to be paid in future due to past events, it is recorded in the statement of financial position based on the reasonable estimates and historical judgments (Mudel 2016). Correct identification and accounting of liabilities in the business organization is particularly relevant during the potential impact of the environment on production and disposal of materials in the manufacturing process. It is essential to recognize the correct value of costs and liabilities even in the operating activities for the purpose of determining correct financial information of the company (Song 2016). In case, the accounting of the company fails to capture the relevant information on appropriate understanding of liabilities it matters because incorrect understanding would result in wrong estimation of liabilities that would affect the true result of financial performance. If the organizational accounting fails to capture the information on appropriate recognition criteria of liabilities in the current financial year, it will disclose incorrect accounting balance in the financial statements i.e. income statement as well as balance sheet (Moehrle et al. 2016). As per the principles and standards on accounting, it is essential to recognize the transactions and financial information at fair value and as per the best estimates so that the true and fair result can be obtained (Ratnatunga 2016). Further, in case the liabilities with respect to provisions on doubtful debts or long- term liabilities is classified and recorded incorrectly, the same would result in overstated profit and fals e information to the present and potential investors. Accordingly, organizational accounting is required to understand the concept of definition of liabilities to recognize it in correctly so that the transparent financial information can be determined. However, failure to capture the appropriate information on accounting of liabilities may occur especially during the negative environmental situation that results in presenting correct business information in terms of social and environmental impact. Such misrepresentation affect the sustainability of the organization as it is disclosed in the sustainability report for the current financial year. Misrepresentation of liabilities in the statement of financial position of the company reflects incorrect financial result as well as incorrect amount of obligations that the company owes to other parties. Such misappropriation represents incorrect information on current ratio; cost of capital that involves long- term debt along with the weighted average cost of capital. Further, in case the amount of short- term liability or long- term liability is classified as contingent liability, then the same would be eliminated from the accounting of financial statements and disclosed in the notes to the accounts. Such error in considering and classification of liability would overstate the profit and reflect inappropriate financial information to the investors and other stakeholders. Analyzing whether the definition of liability should be changed or not As per the current definition liability stated by International Financial Reporting Standards, a liability is the present obligation of the business organizations, which is resulting from the past events and which is expected to cause the outflow of the firms resources in order to gain some economic benefits (Demerjian, Donovan and Larson 2016). However, as identified in the above discussion that there are some shortfalls in the current definition of liability that the business organizations follow. In the discussion, it has been identified the current definition of liability does not provide any clear classification regarding the short-term liabilities, long term liabilities and contingent liabilities (Metzger 2016). Due to this, sometimes the actual financial position of the company is not reflected by its financial statements or report. This indicates that the definition of liability must provide the clear guidance that how the business organizations or accountants should classify the liabilities in to short term, long term and contingent liabilities (Oulasvirta 2016). This will make the accounting tasks easier and at the same time, this will also help the business organizations disclosing their actual financial position clearly (Myers 2016). At the same time, the reliability of the financial statements of the company will increase more (Couch and Wu 2016). The above discussion has also mentioned that in the current definition of liability, nothing has been mentioned about the time duration within which the business organizations must account for their liabilities. If the current definition of the liability is analyzed critically, then it can be identified that in that definition, it has been mentioned that the liability is the present obligation of the business organization, which is resulted from the past activities (Kahiya and Kahiya 2017). This may confuse the accountant or the business organizations regarding the timing within which they must account for the liabilities. Therefore, it is very important to specify the timing to account for the liability in the definition of liability. However, in this context, Wu et al. (2017) mentioned that when the companies are accounting for the transactions for a particular financial year, it is obvious that they must account for their liabilities in the same year in which the liabilities have generated. From this point of view, it cannot be said that there is any mistake in the current definition of the liability for which the definition needs to be changed. On the contrary, Cade, Ikuta and Koonce (2016) stated that the understanding of each person can differ. Hence, if the definition is not clear then the accounting techniques, which are based on the human understandings, may also differ. Apart from these, the above discussion has also stated that the current definition of liability does not provide any clue regarding the impact of liability on the cash inflows of the organization. The companies sometimes do not account for the liability fully in the year, in which the liability has been generated (Swieringa 2016). The comp anies do this in order to overstate their profits. It does not increase the cash inflows of the organization (Bolla, Wittig and Kohler 2016). However, if the definition itself indicates the impact of liability on the cash flow of the organization, then it may stop this kind of activity. Therefore, from this discussion, it can be said that current definition of liability must be changed and the new definition must consider the factors like, classification of liabilities, impact of liability on the cash flow and the time span within which the company must accounting for the liabilities. Identifying the broader ramifications for accounting and business due to the accurate capture of liabilities In the above discussions, it has been identified that current definition of liability does not provide complete guideline to the accounting for liabilities. The discussions have also indicated the definition of the liability must be changed so that the accounting for the liabilities can be done more accurately. However, if the liabilities are accounted or captured accurately, then some complexities may take place for the accounting and businesses. One of the broader ramifications that may take place for the accounting and businesses is the business organizations cannot hide any situation in which the business organization earns less profit (Grahn and Bigus 2016). Sometimes, it happens that in a particular financial year the performance of the company is down and the liabilities of the company is high. Due to this, many shareholders and investors of the company stop to invest more funds in that business (Mokhtar, Jusoh and Zulkifli 2016). Due to this, the financial health of the company becomes weaker. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the business organizations overstate the profits by showing less liability. However, if the liabilities are accurately captured, then the companies cannot overstate the profits by lowering down the liabilities (Fornaro, Lange and Lucido 2016). Hence, the actual situation will be in front of the stakeholders and that may affect the financial health of the organization negatively. The proper accounting for the liabilities of the organizations may also de-motivate the new investors or stakeholders (Alrazi and Husin 2016). If the accountants in the business organizations account accurately for the liabilities, then the actual obligations of the business will be clear to the new investors or potential investors. If the liabilities of the company are high, then the potential investors may feel that their investment will not be safe in that company (Bolla, Wittig and Kohler 2016). On the other side, the existing shareholders and investors may feel that their current investment is not secure and due to this, they may back out from the further investment. The accurate capture of the liabilities can also make the accounting for liabilities more critical. If the accountants of the companies account for the liabilities accurately, then they will require more knowledge regarding accounting techniques, classifications of liabilities and their impacts on the financial position of the company. At the same time, the accountant will also require detailed analysis of each liability, which will be more time consuming as well as costly (Grahn and Bigus 2016). Moreover, the proper accounting for the liabilities will make the accounting more complex to understand. The stakeholders especially the shareholders of the companies, who are not accounting experts, will not be able to clearly understand the accounting for the liabilities (Kahiya and Kahiya 2017). If the shareholders cannot understand the financial reports due to the accounting complexities, then the companies will not be able to convince them for investing their money in the business. This will be huge loss to the company, which will affect not only the current financial position, but also the future financial position of the company. Therefore, from the above discussion, it is clear that if the liabilities of the companies are captured accurately, then several problems or ramifications may take place. Due to the ramifications the financial position of the company may decline, which will not be acceptable to any business organization. Conclusion In this study, it has been identified that the current definition of liabilities has some shortfalls due to which many problems take place within the business organizations. The major shortfalls that the study has identified in the current definition of liability are the current definition does not provide any classification of liability, though actually there are three different types of liabilities short term liabilities, long term liabilities and contingent liability. Another shortfall is not proper time span is mentioned within which the liabilities in the business organizations must be accounted. The study has shown that this shortfall sometimes confuses the accountants regarding the time within which the accounting for the liabilities must be done. Due to these different problems or shortfalls, the study has suggested that the current definition of liability must be changed and some modifications must be made in the areas where the current definition has loopholes. The study has also identified that if the liabilities of the companies are accounted properly, then also some problems or ramifications may take place. The major complexity that may take place is regarding the financial position of the companies. 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